- Consensus report is intended to provide clinical professionals with evidence-based guidance about individualizing nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) or pre-DM.
- All patients with type 1 and 2 DM should be referred for medical nutrition therapy.
- There is no “1 size fits all” recommended nutrition plan for all people with diabetes or prediabetes.
- There is no ideal percentage of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat for all people with diabetes or prediabetes, and a variety of eating patterns are acceptable for most.
- When counseling people with diabetes, a key strategy to achieve glycemic targets should include assessment of current dietary intake and individualized guidance on self-monitoring carbohydrate.
- Macronutrient distribution should be personalized based on individualized assessment of current eating patterns, preferences, and metabolic goals.
- For weight loss, emphasis should be placed on the ability to maintain and sustain an eating plan that results in an energy deficit.
- Common factors in successful eating plans include an emphasis on nonstarchy vegetables, minimizing added sugars and refined grains, and choosing whole, unprocessed foods over processed foods as possible.
- Sections address the role of nutrition therapy in diabetes complications, including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and gastroparesis.