- Antibiotic prescription in the first year for acute otitis media or upper respiratory tract infections is linked to a slightly increased risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D).
- Maternal exposure during pregnancy is also tied to slightly increased risk.
- Risks were not always significant in sibling-controlled analyses.
Why this matters
- Some studies have suggested an association of antibiotics exposure and T1D risk.
- 23.8% were prescribed antibiotics as infants.
- Their T1D risk vs those not prescribed antibiotics: adjusted HR, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.36).
- Cesarean delivery intensified this effect.
- Sibling analyses yielded similar associations, although dulling their significance.
- An association of antibiotics for acute otitis media and upper respiratory tract infections was significant in both total and sibling analyses.
- Lactamase-sensitive penicillin was prescribed for 72% and showed an association with T1D (adjusted HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.42).
- For perspective, 1475 children would have to have antibiotic exposure to add 1 T1D case among children under age 9 years.
- Prenatal exposure was also linked to increased T1D risk: adjusted HR, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.00-1.32).
- Study included 797,318 singletons born in Sweden between July 1, 2005 and September 30, 2013.
- Funding: Swedish Research Council; others.
- No information about breastfeeding.
- Types of infection not specifically known.