CDC: majority of 2016 US Zika cases were travel-acquired

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Takeaway

  • During the peak of the US (states only) Zika virus (ZIKV) infection outbreak, there were 5168 confirmed/probable cases reported, 95% of which were travel-associated.

Why this matters

  • CDC continues to recommend that clinicians test patients presenting with ZIKV-compatible illness living in, or who recently traveled to, areas with ongoing or endemic transmission.
  • Patients should be made aware of ongoing travel-related risks, mosquito bite prevention, and sexual transmission.
  • New guidance for pregnant patients was released in July 2017.

Key points

  • Between 2007 and 2014, only 14 travel-associated ZIKV cases were reported/recognized in the United States.
  • Travel-related ZIKV increased after the 2015 outbreak in the Americas (n=4897), with numbers peaking in July 2016 and declining rapidly after August 2016.
  • 48% of cases were reported from 3 states: Florida (n=1107; 21%), New York (n=1002; 19%), California (n=421; 8%).
  • Greater proportion of cases occurred in women (n=3310; 64%), 14% (n=469) of whom were pregnant.
  • Most common travel destination was the Caribbean (n=2389; 61%), followed by Central America (n=766; 20%) and North America (n=521; 13%), with South America, Southeast Asia, and Pacific Islands comprising the rest.
  • Infection source: 4% (n=224) presumed mosquito-borne transmission; 1% (n=47) acquired through sexual transmission (n=45), laboratory transmission (n=1), person-to-person/unknown (n=1).