- Newly diagnosed celiac disease (CD) is associated with a 3.5- to 35.8-fold increase in relative risk for 3 types of lymphoma and gastrointestinal (GI) cancer: T-cell lymphoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (esophageal SCC).
Why this matters
- One of the first and largest studies to enumerate relative and absolute risks for lymphoma and GI cancer in CD.
- Findings suggest that patients diagnosed with CD at age ≥50 years should be screened for T-cell lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma.
- Nationwide, population-based case-control study in the Netherlands comparing new, histologically confirmed CD among patients diagnosed with lymphoma or GI carcinoma (n=301,425) vs CD among patients diagnosed with melanoma or basal cell carcinoma (n=576,971; the control group).
- Funding: None.
- T-cell lymphoma (76% of which was intestinal or extraintestinal enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma) was associated with CD (relative risk [RR], 35.8; 95% CI, 27.1-47.4).
- Most T-cell lymphomas diagnosed trend<.001>
- Small bowel adenocarcinoma (RR, 11.9; 95% CI, 8.2-17.2) and esophageal SCC (RR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.1-5.8) were also associated with CD.
- Among these cancers, absolute risk was highest (4.3%) for T-cell lymphoma in men diagnosed with CD at ages 50-80 years.
- Case-control design.