- This meta-analysis found that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was a risk factor for dementia.
- The risk was higher in individuals using PPIs aged ≥ 65 years.
Why this matters
- Active screening for long-term PPIs use and re-evaluation of medication after appropriate investigations and diagnosis should be included in routine geriatric care practices.
- Meta-analysis included 6 studies (n=166,146) after a search across PubMed, Web of Science and other databases.
- Funding: None disclosed.
- PPIs use vs no use was associated with an increased risk for dementia (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.49; I2=61.2%).
- In subgroup analyses:
- PPIs use was significantly associated with an increased risk for dementia in participants aged ≥40 years (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.49; I2=61.2%) and ≥65 years (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17-1.65).
- The risk for dementia was higher among PPIs users during follow-up time ≥5 years (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12-1.46; I2=59.1%) and
- In the case of regional impact, participants from Europe showed an overall pooled HR estimate of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.23-1.73).
- No significant association was observed between PPIs use and the risk for dementia in participants from Asia (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.98-1.38) and North America (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.82-1.56).
- Heterogeneity among studies.
- Risk of bias.