Does the rotavirus vaccine reduce T1D risk?

  • JAMA Pediatrics

  • curated by Miriam Tucker
  • Clinical Essentials
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Takeaway

  • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence declined following introduction of oral rotavirus vaccine into a routine immunization schedule.

Why this matters

  • Rotavirus infection has been associated with T1D development in children.

Study design

  • Analysis of newly diagnosed T1D incidence in Australian children in the 8 years before vs 8 years after the May 2007 introduction of routine oral rotavirus vaccination for all infants aged ≥6 weeks, from a national database.
  • Funding: Non-industry grants; one institution receives funding from vaccine manufacturers.

Key results

  • 2000-2015: 16,159 cases of newly diagnosed T1D in 66,055,000 person-years among children ages 0-14 years recorded, equating to a mean rate of 12.7 cases/100,000 children.
  • In children ages 0-4 years, number of incident T1D cases decreased by 14% (rate ratio, 0.86, P=.04) after 2007 oral rotavirus vaccine introduction.
  • No evidence of change over time in preintervention or postintervention patterns.
  • In children ages 5-9 and 10-14 years, no change in number of incident cases or temporal differences during the entire 16-year period.

Limitations

  • Findings differ from a smaller, shorter Finnish population-based study, suggesting that response to rotavirus vaccination could vary by geographical location.

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