- Compared with counterparts given caffeine therapy more than 2 days after birth, preterm infants given caffeine therapy within 2 days of birth had reduced odds of significant neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-24 months' corrected age.
Why this matters
- Early caffeine therapy reduces rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, and death in preterm infants, but the effect on neurodevelopment is unknown.
- Compared with the late-caffeine group, the early-caffeine group was less likely to have:
- Significant neurodevelopmental impairment (aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.94).
- Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive score
- In propensity score-based matched-pair analyses, the early-caffeine was group less likely to have:
- Cerebral palsy (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.98).
- Hearing impairment (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.89).
- Canadian multicenter retrospective cohort study, infants
- 1545 early caffeine therapy (≤2 days after birth).
- 563 late caffeine therapy (>2 days after birth).
- Lacks of established caffeine therapy guidelines across centers.
- Attrition bias.