- The European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology (ESGO) and the European Federation for Colposcopy (EFC) support gender-neutral human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs for children and young adolescents and a catch-up program for young adults.
- Clinical efficacy has been demonstrated against HPV-related cervical, vulvovaginal, and anal precancer and invasive cervical cancer.
- Vaccination programs should be gender-neutral to improve coverage, and target individuals of prepubertal age groups that give optimal immunologic response and decrease the likelihood of HPV positivity at the time of vaccination.
- A catch-up program for young adults improves effectiveness.
- The vaccines are also effective in sexually active individuals with previous but cleared infections. Vaccination in addition to local conservative treatment of HPV-related disease reduces recurrent or subsequent HPV-related disease.
- School-based programs or other well-organized public health structures are more effective and ensure equity compared with opportunistic vaccination.
- 3 doses are recommended in individuals aged >15 years (2 doses in those aged
- HPV screening and vaccination are complementary preventive strategies but are often implemented as separate and noncoordinated programs; combining vaccination and screening with HPV testing appears to be the most effective preventive approach.