- Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked to an almost 10-fold increased risk of later developing type 2 diabetes (T2D).
- The findings suggest the need for postpartum screening and encouragement of lifestyle interventions in patients who have a history of GDM.
Why this matters
- Previous systematic reviews on this subject were published more than a decade ago.
- Systematic review/meta-analysis including 20 studies involving 1,332,373 women, of whom 5.1% (67,956) had GDM.
- Funding: National Institute for Health Research (UK).
- Pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women with vs without GDM was 9.51 (P<.001>
- Pooled RRs (95% CIs) by ethnicity/race:
- 16.28 (15.01-17.66) among predominantly white populations,
- 10.38 (4.61-23.39) in nonwhite populations, and
- 8.31 (5.44-12.69) in mixed populations.
- By years of follow-up, estimated pooled RRs (95% CIs):
- 17.06 (8.95-32.55) for 1-5 years,
- 10.42 (5.68-19.11) for >5-10 years, and
- 8.09 (4.34-15.08) for >10 years.
- Pooled cumulative GDM incidence (95% CIs) by follow-up duration:
- ~9.22% (7.19%-11.26%) for 1-5 years, and
- 16.15% (15.83%-16.47%) for >10 years.
- Cumulative GDM incidence in controls reached 1.90% (95% CI, 1.87%-1.92%) for the longest studies.
- Only English-language studies included.
- No data on parity or family history of diabetes.
- Incidence rate ratios could not be calculated.
- No individual patient-level data.