Considerable heterogeneity exists in epidemiological patterns of thyroid cancer across sex, age, sociodemographics, region and country, a study in JAMA Open reports.
Data obtained from the Global Health Data Exchange were collected from age ranges 5-14, 15-49, 50-69, and >70 years. The sociodemographic index (SDI) for each country (n=195) was previously calculated in the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017, and divided into quintiles; high, high-middle, middle, low-middle, and low.
Incident cases of thyroid cancer increased by 169 percent between 1990 (n=95,030) and 2017 (n=255,490), and deaths increased by 87 per cent between 1990 (n=22,070) and 2017 (n=41,240).
Although the age-standardised incidence rates varied among different countries, there was an upward global trend. In addition, the age-standardised death rate (ASDR) and age-standardised disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) rate showed a downward trend.
The most common age at onset of thyroid cancer worldwide was 15 to 49 years in females compared with 50 to 69 years in males. People in lower SDI quintiles developed thyroid cancer and died from it earlier than those in other quintiles.
The three countries with the highest incidence remained the same from 1990 to 2017; China, USA and India. China had the highest number of deaths globally.