Gluten intake in early childhood is linked to T1D risk

  • Lund-Blix NA & al.
  • PLoS Med
  • 1 Mar 2020

  • curated by Emily Willingham, PhD
  • Clinical Essentials
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Takeaway

  • Gluten intake in early childhood is associated with risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D), but maternal gluten intake during pregnancy shows no association with T1D risk in the child.

Why this matters

  • These authors caution that their results require confirmation in randomized trials and do not warrant a change in recommendations.
  • Clinicians might want to be aware of the association in discussing risk in the context of a family history of T1D.

Key results

  • During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, the T1D diagnosis rate was 0.4% or 32.6/100,000 person-years.
  • Mean age at diagnosis: 7.5 (range, 0.7-15.0) years.
  • Mean maternal gluten intake/day was 13.6 g.
  • Maternal gluten intake by 10 g/day increments was not linked to T1D risk in the child:
    • Adjusted HR (aHR), 1.02 (95% CI, 0.73-1.43).
  • Mean child gluten intake/day at age 18 months was 8.8 g.
  • For children, gluten intake in 10 g/day increments was linked to T1D risk:
    • aHR, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.06-2.01).
  • Adjusting for any type of diabetes in the mother gave similar results.

Study design

  • Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 86,306 children born between 2000 and 2009, followed to April 15, 2018.
  • Funding: Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services; others.

Limitations

  • Observational, so unmeasured confounding is possible.