- Gluten intake in early childhood is associated with risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D), but maternal gluten intake during pregnancy shows no association with T1D risk in the child.
Why this matters
- These authors caution that their results require confirmation in randomized trials and do not warrant a change in recommendations.
- Clinicians might want to be aware of the association in discussing risk in the context of a family history of T1D.
- During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, the T1D diagnosis rate was 0.4% or 32.6/100,000 person-years.
- Mean age at diagnosis: 7.5 (range, 0.7-15.0) years.
- Mean maternal gluten intake/day was 13.6 g.
- Maternal gluten intake by 10 g/day increments was not linked to T1D risk in the child:
- Adjusted HR (aHR), 1.02 (95% CI, 0.73-1.43).
- Mean child gluten intake/day at age 18 months was 8.8 g.
- For children, gluten intake in 10 g/day increments was linked to T1D risk:
- aHR, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.06-2.01).
- Adjusting for any type of diabetes in the mother gave similar results.
- Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 86,306 children born between 2000 and 2009, followed to April 15, 2018.
- Funding: Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services; others.
- Observational, so unmeasured confounding is possible.