- Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with lower odds of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and albuminuria.
Why this matters
- Findings add to evidence for diet as a modifiable risk factor for CKD progression.
- Meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies involving 85,473 adults (age range, 27-71 years); mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 87.2±13 mL/minute/1.73 m2.
- Healthy diet consisted of higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fish, and low-fat dairy with limited intake of red/processed meats, sodium, and sugary drinks.
- Mean follow-up was 10.4±7.4 years.
- Funding: None disclosed.
- 15 studies (n=79,998): moderate-certainty evidence supported 30% lower odds of CKD with healthy dietary patterns (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82; I2=51%).
- Finding was consistent across dietary subtypes (P=.65).
- 4 studies (n=8135) linked healthy dietary patterns to 23% reduced odds of albuminuria (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99; I2=37%).
- In subgroup analysis, reduced odds of incident CKD were observed with:
- Mediterranean diets (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93), and
- Guideline-adherent diets (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.84), but not
- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.47-1.39).
- No significant association was observed between healthy dietary patterns and eGFR decline.
- Low overall risk for bias.
- Observational design.
- Heterogeneous definitions of healthy eating.