High-dose vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk for enamel defects by around 50 per cent in offspring at age six years, according to a new study published in the journal JAMA Pediatrics.
In this post hoc analysis of the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort (COPSAC2010), 623 pregnant women were randomised (1:1) to receive high-dose vitamin D (2400 IU/day; n= 315) and placebo tablets (n=308) from pregnancy week 24 to one week post-partum. They also received 400 IU/day of vitamin D as part of standard care.
Dental examination was completed at age six years in 496 children with data analysed in 2018.
The risk for enamel defects in the permanent dentition was lower in children whose mothers received high-dose vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy compared with standard dose (15.1% versus 27.5%; odds ratio [OR] 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.81). Similar association was observed for enamel defects in the deciduous dentition (8.6% versus 15.9%; OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.28-0.87). No association was observed for caries in both permanent and deciduous dentition.
The authors said the finding suggests "prenatal high-dose vitamin D supplementation as a preventive intervention to reduce the prevalence of enamel defects with a significant potential effect on dental health."