High risk HLA incompatible kidney transplant in sensitized patients has no survival benefit

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Background

More than 40% of patients awaiting a kidney transplant in the UK are sensitised with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Median time to transplantation for such patients is double that of unsensitised patients at about 74 months. Removing antibody to perform an HLA-incompatible (HLAi) living donor transplantation is perceived to be high risk, although patient survival data are limited. We compared survival of patients opting for an HLAi kidney transplant with that of similarly sensitised patients awaiting a compatible organ.

Methods

From the UK adult kidney transplant waiting list, we selected crossmatch positive living donor HLAi kidney transplant recipients who received their transplant between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2013, and were followed up to Dec 31, 2014 (end of study). These patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio with similarly sensitised patients cases listed for a deceased-donor transplant during that period. Data were censored both at the time of transplantation (listed only), and at the end of the study period (listed or transplant). We used Kaplan-Meier curves to compare patient survival between HLAi and the matched cohort.

Findings

Of 25,518 patient listings, 213 (1%) underwent ...