Impact of PCV vaccine on acute otitis media risk

  • Fortanier AC & al.
  • Vaccine
  • 7 Mar 2019

  • curated by Sarfaroj Khan
  • UK Clinical Digest
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Takeaway

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV), when given during infancy, postpones the onset and is associated with reduced risk for first acute otitis media (AOM).
  • No effect of PCV was seen on AOM recurrences up to the age of 4 years, suggesting that the impact on overall AOM is largely attributable to the prevention of a first AOM episode.

Why this matters

  • PCV in infancy is widely implemented globally.
  • Findings suggest PCV may impact pneumococcal AOM episodes occurring during early childhood.

Study design

  • 18,237 children born between January 2004 and February 2015 were included and followed during their first 4 years of life.
  • The effect of PCV (no-PCV, 7-valent PCV [PCV7] or 10-valent PCV [PCV10]) on onset of AOM (in months) was evaluated.
  • Funding: None.

Key results

  • 6967 (38%) experienced at least 1 GP-diagnosed AOM episode (median age: 12 months; interquartile range: 12 months).
  • Compared with the PCV7 and no-PCV groups, time-to-first AOM was longest in the PCV10 group (log-rank test P<.001>
  • The risk of experiencing a first AOM episode was lower in the PCV10 group vs no-PCV group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89), while the effect of PCV7 was less pronounced (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.84-1.05).
  • PCV7 and PCV10 did not reduce the risk for subsequent AOM episodes.
  • HRs for overall AOM were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.95-1.06) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) for PCV7 and PCV10, respectively, vs no-PCV.

Limitations

  • Observational design.