- Evidence supports potential benefits of specific dietary interventions for patients with IBD.
Why this matters
- This guideline allows for evidence-based dietary decisions by patients with IBD.
- Expert opinion from the International Organization of IBD’s Nutrition Cluster on role of foods and additives in IBD relapse control.
- Fruits and vegetables:
- For Crohn’s disease (CD), increased consumption is prudent.
- CD patients with strictures should restrict insoluble fiber.
- Refined sugar and carbohydrates:
- Consider low-FODMAP diet if persistent symptoms after inflammation resolution.
- However, there is no evidence that changing FODMAP intake modulates inflammation.
- Red and processed meat, poultry, eggs:
- For CD, evidence suggests no need to restrict intake of unprocessed red meat, lean chicken, eggs.
- For ulcerative colitis (UC), reducing red and processed meat intake is prudent.
- Avoid unpasteurized products.
- Emulsifiers, carrageenans, other thickeners in pasteurized dairy complicated analysis, prevented consensus.
- CD: reduce saturated fats, avoid trans fats.
- UC: reduce myristic acid, increase omega-3 fatty acids from ocean fish, avoid trans fats.
- Alcohol: insufficient evidence to recommend changes in low-level intake.
- Wheat and gluten: insufficient evidence to recommend restriction.
- Authors also suggest limiting intake of:
- Maltodextrin and artificial sweeteners.
- Carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, polysorbate-80.
- Titanium dioxide, sulfites.