International panel proposes standard list of diabetes outcome measures

  • Nano J & al.
  • Diabet Med
  • 2 Mar 2020

  • curated by Miriam Tucker
  • Clinical Essentials
Access to the full content of this site is available only to registered healthcare professionals. Access to the full content of this site is available only to registered healthcare professionals.


  • A multinational panel has developed a standard list of 27 diabetes outcomes for use in routine clinical practice to monitor, benchmark, and improve diabetes care.

Why this matters

  • Standardized diabetes care monitoring can improve quality through routine audits and benchmarking.
  • Inconsistencies among measures adopted in different countries hamper this process and undermine international comparisons.

Study design

  • Systematic review of outcome measures for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
  • Consensus-driven modified Delphi panel, comprising academics, health professionals, and people with diabetes.
  • Validation via external feedback from people with diabetes and health professionals.
  • Funding: Imperial College London Diabetes Centre, Abu Dhabi; JDRF, United States.

Key results

  • Clinical outcome measure domains:
    • Diabetes control, including BP, lipid profile, BMI, and HbA1c.
    • Acute events: diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome, hypoglycemia.
    • Chronic complications: long-term neuropathic, cardiovascular, peripheral arterial, visual, periodontal, erectile.
    • Health services: hospitalizations/emergency visits per year, discharge diagnoses in major diabetes-related categories.
    • Survival: diabetes-related deaths.
  • Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): assessed with 5-item WHO Well-Being Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to measure depression, and Problem Areas in Diabetes scale.


  • Opinion-based.
  • No feedback from people with diabetes in lower-income countries.
  • Outcome relevance may differ by diabetes type.
  • PROMs may not be uniformly assessed.