Low-GI diets offer potential benefits in DM, pre-DM

  • Zafar MI & al.
  • Am J Clin Nutr
  • 2 Aug 2019

  • International Clinical Digest
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Takeaway

  • Low-glycemic index (GI) diets may help with glycaemic control, lipid control, and weight reduction in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes.

Why this matters

  • Controlling postprandial glycaemia remains challenging in diabetes.

Study design

  • Meta-analysis including 54 randomised controlled trials comparing low-GI diets with a variety of other diets in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes (T1D), or type 2 diabetes (T2D).
  • Funding: None.

Key results

  • Low-GI diets were tied to statistically significant HbA1c (standardised mean difference, −0.19; P<.0001 and fasting blood glucose p=".01)" decreases reductions of points mg respectively.>
  • No effect seen for fasting blood insulin, insulin resistance, and insulin requirements.
  • Among studies with GI reductions of ≥20 points, HbA1c was significantly lower with low-GI diet (−0.19; P=.01), but no other significant differences.
  • No significant difference between low-GI and control diets in body-weight reductions overall (−0.08; P=.07), but:
    • BMI decreased significantly (−0.16; P=.01), equating to reduction of ∼0.6 kg/m2; and
    • Body weight dropped significantly among participants with obesity (−0.14; P=.007).
  • Significant reductions in total cholesterol (−0.14; P=.003), equating to ∼4.5 mg/dL, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.18; P=.001), equating to ∼5.5 mg/dL.

Limitations

  • Cross-study heterogeneity.
  • Few studies in T1D.  

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