- Patient response to a single dose of neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy can be used to predict clinical outcomes of patients with high-risk, resectable stage III/IV melanoma.
Why this matters
- This study provides important information on the mechanisms of anti-PD-1 therapy in the tumor environment.
- 29.6% of patients experienced a complete or major pathological response.
- All these patients remained disease-free during the study.
- Increases in exhausted CD8 T cells were observed at day 7 in blood collected from responders and at 3 weeks in their tumor tissue.
- Analysis of posttreatment tumor revealed a distinct signature of T-cell activation compared with pretreatment.
- A pretreatment immune signature including genes involved in T-cell activation, adaptive immune response, and T-cell migration correlated with posttreatment response and recurrence-free survival.
- Patients who experienced recurrence showed low amounts of CD8 T cells and possible mutational escape and tumor evolution.
- 27 patients with stage III/IV melanoma were treated with neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy (pembrolizumab) and analyzed for response rates and outcomes.
- Funding: SPORE in Skin Cancer; NIH/National Cancer Institute; Tara Miler Foundation; Melanoma Research Alliance; David and Hallee Adelman Immunotherapy Research Fund; DFG; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy; MSD.
- Small patient sample size.