- A meta-analysis finds that hyperuricemia and gout are associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality.
- Digestive, urinary, hematologic cancers are implicated, but the mechanism is unknown.
Why this matters
- Treatment of hyperuricemia/gout has the potential to reduce cancer risk.
- Meta-analysis of 32 prospective and 1 retrospective cohort (N≥2,000,000) after search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science.
- Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.
- Hyperuricemia cancer incidence:
- Any cancer: pooled relative risk (RR), 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12.
- Urinary: pooled RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.50.
- Digestive: pooled RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.33.
- Hyperuricemia cancer mortality:
- Any cancer (pooled RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.26), but effect restricted to males (pooled RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45).
- Digestive is nearly significant (pooled RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.53).
- Gout cancer incidence:
- Any cancer: pooled RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25).
- Urinary: pooled RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48.
- Lymphatic/hematologic: pooled RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.66.
- Digestive: pooled RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24.
- Respiratory: pooled RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21.
- Gout cancer mortality not reported.
- Linear relationships between serum uric acid levels and overall cancer incidence (Pnonlinearity=.238) and mortality (Pnonlinearity=.263), suggesting potential dose-response relationships, but authors advise caution.
- Observational designs preclude causal inferences.