The results of a new large-scale prospective study show that smoking is linked to more cardiovascular disease (CVD) sub-types than previously known.
The Australian study finds, for the first time, a significant increase in the risk of incident paroxysmal tachycardia hospitalisation or death, including for supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia, in current versus never smokers.
Researchers tracked 188,167 CVD- and cancer-free individuals aged ≥45 years from 2006 to 2009 for seven years. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD hospitalisation or mortality among current and past versus never smokers were estimated, including according to intensity and recency of smoking, using Cox regression modelling.
Of the 36 most common specific CVD sub-types, event rates for 29 were increased significantly in current smokers versus never smokers.
Adjusted HRs (95% CI) in current versus never smokers were: 2.45 (2.22-2.70) for acute myocardial infarction, 2.16 (1.93-2.42) for cerebrovascular disease, 2.23 (1.96-2.53) for heart failure, 5.06 (4.47-5.74) for peripheral arterial disease, 1.50 (1.24-1.80) for paroxysmal tachycardia and 2.75 (2.37-3.19) for total CVD mortality.
CVD risks were elevated at almost all levels of current smoking intensity examined and increased with smoking intensity.
Risks diminished with quitting smoking, with excess risks largely avoided by quitting before age 45 years, the study, published in BMC Medicine, noted.