- Meta-analysis shows 26%, 39%, and 20% higher risk for renal cancer in ever-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers, respectively, vs never-smokers.
- Risk increased nonlinearly with smoking intensity, and linearly with smoking duration.
Why this matters
- The association emphasizes the significance of smoking cessation programs and patient counseling.
- A meta-analysis of 56 studies.
- Funding: None disclosed.
- Compared with never-smokers, significant risk for renal cancer was observed in:
- Ever-smokers (pooled relative risk [pRR], 1.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1.33).
- Current smokers (pRR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.28-1.51).
- Former smokers (pRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.27).
- Risk for renal cancer is increased:
- Nonlinearly with smoking intensity: pRR5 cigarettes/day, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.11-1.26); pRR10 cigarettes/day, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.22-1.52); pRR30 cigarettes/day, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.52-1.95).
- Linearly with smoking duration: pRR10 years, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.47); pRR25 years, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.10-2.64).
- A linear trend toward lower risk for renal cancer was observed after 10, 20, and 30 years of quitting in former vs current smokers, but the association did not reach significance.
- Significant heterogeneity between studies.