Smoking tied to risk for renal cancer in meta-analysis

  • Liu X & al.
  • Crit Rev Oncol Hematol
  • 29 Jul 2019

  • curated by Deepa Koli
  • Univadis Clinical Summaries
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Takeaway

  • Meta-analysis shows 26%, 39%, and 20% higher risk for renal cancer in ever-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers, respectively, vs never-smokers.
  • Risk increased nonlinearly with smoking intensity, and linearly with smoking duration.

Why this matters

  • The association emphasizes the significance of smoking cessation programs and patient counseling.

Study design

  • A meta-analysis of 56 studies.
  • Funding: None disclosed.

Key results

  • Compared with never-smokers, significant risk for renal cancer was observed in:
    • Ever-smokers (pooled relative risk [pRR], 1.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1.33).
    • Current smokers (pRR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.28-1.51).
    • Former smokers (pRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.27).
  • Risk for renal cancer is increased:
    • Nonlinearly with smoking intensity: pRR5 cigarettes/day, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.11-1.26); pRR10 cigarettes/day, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.22-1.52); pRR30 cigarettes/day, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.52-1.95).
    • Linearly with smoking duration: pRR10 years, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.47); pRR25 years, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.10-2.64).
  • A linear trend toward lower risk for renal cancer was observed after 10, 20, and 30 years of quitting in former vs current smokers, but the association did not reach significance.

Limitations

  • Significant heterogeneity between studies.