- Individuals with Tourette's syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) had elevated metabolic and cardiovascular risk compared with both the general population and unaffected siblings.
Why this matters
- Importance for monitoring, targeting of interventions.
- Over a mean of 22.2 years, individuals with TS/CTD had higher risk for any metabolic/cardiovascular disorder vs:
- Unaffected general population (aHR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.90-2.09).
- Sibling controls (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.24-1.51).
- Specific elevated risks vs general population:
- Obesity (aHR, 2.76; 95% CI, 2.47-3.09).
- Type 2 diabetes (aHR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.96).
- Circulatory system diseases (aHR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.67-1.86).
- Certain risks were significantly more elevated for males vs females.
- Elevation of risk for any metabolic/cardiovascular disorder:
- Evident from childhood.
- Attenuated after excluding patients with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.42-1.62).
- Among patients with TS/CTD, risks for metabolic/cardiovascular disorders were lower for those receiving antipsychotics >1 year vs not receiving these medications.
- Swedish longitudinal population-based cohort study:
- 14,045,026 individuals overall (7804 with TS or CTD).
- 5141 families with siblings discordant for TS or CTD.
- Main outcomes: metabolic, cardiovascular conditions.
- Funding: Tourettes Action; others.
- Patients with milder tics not captured.
- Possible underestimation of some conditions.
- Lack of data on potential lifestyle confounders.