- In adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ineligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), complete remission (CR) with the first cycle of induction therapy was linked to improved survival outcomes with relapse-preventive histamine dihydrochloride/interleukin 2 (HDC/IL-2).
Why this matters
- Relapse after induction/consolidation chemotherapy is a major cause of mortality.
- Phase 3 study to investigate associations between the efficiency of previous induction chemotherapy and the efficacy of relapse-preventive HDC/IL-2 in 320 patients with AML ineligible for allo-SCT.
- Patients in CR after consolidation were randomly assigned to receive HDC/IL-2 or no treatment.
- Funding: None disclosed.
- Among 260 evaluable patients, 78% achieved CR1 after induction cycle 1.
- In patients achieving CR1 with induction cycle 1:
- Significant improvement in leukemia-free survival (LFS) with HDC/IL-2 (P=.01).
- A trend toward improved OS with HDC/IL-2 (P=.09).
- In patients aged
- Significant improvement in LFS with HDC/IL-2 (P=.001).
- Significant improvement in OS with HDC/IL-2 (P=.02).
- No significant difference in LFS (P=.64).
- No significant difference in OS (P=.84).
- The limited sample size for subgroup analyses.