A meta-analysis published in the journal Advances in Nutrition indicates significantly low serum vitamin D levels in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Researchers performed a meta-analysis of 13 observational studies (9 case-control or cross-sectional; 4 prospective) comparing serum vitamin D level between children with ADHD and healthy control identified through a literature search on PubMed, Web of Science, and other databases.
The pooled results of 9 case-control or cross-sectional studies showed significantly low serum vitamin D levels in children with ADHD vs control participants (weighted mean difference [WMD], −6.93 ng/mL; P<.001). The pooled results of 5 case-control studies found that lower vitamin D levels were associated with higher risk of developing ADHD (OR, 2.57; P=.03). The pooled results of prospective studies showed that lower maternal or cord serum vitamin D levels were significantly associated with a higher risk for ADHD in later life (relative risk, 1.40; P=.009).
“Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children; hence, interventions to increase sun exposure and vitamin D intake should be considered in early life with high priority. Further prospective cohort studies and community-based intervention trials are warranted to investigate the association between vitamin D and ADHD,” the authors said.