A review led by researchers at the University of Bristol has found that body mass index (BMI) is not associated with the risk for prostate cancer or advanced prostate cancer, but there is an association between BMI and prostate-specific antigen.
The researchers searched PubMed and Embase for studies until 2 October 2017. In total, 78 studies were identified for the association between BMI and prostate cancer, 21 for BMI and advanced prostate cancer and 35 for BMI and PSA.
Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to examine linear associations of log-PSA and prostate cancer with BMI and associations between categories of BMI and each outcome.
The meta-analysis found that a 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with a change in PSA of −5.88 per cent (95% CI, −6.87% to −4.87%).
Using BMI categories, compared with normal weight men, the PSA levels of overweight men were 3.43 per cent lower (95% CI, −5.57% to −1.23%) and obese men were 12.9 per cent lower (95% CI, −15.2 to −10.7).
Prostate cancer and advanced prostate cancer analyses showed little or no evidence associations.
The authors concluded that there is little or no evidence of an association between BMI and risk for prostate cancer or advanced prostate cancer. However, they said there was strong evidence of an inverse and non-linear association between BMI and PSA.