- Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) significantly increases the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms.
Why this matters
- Both GDM and PPD carry significant short- and long-term health consequences for women and their children.
- Meta-analysis of 10 studies published between 2013 and 2018, with a total population of 2,000,002.
- Funding: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
- Pooled together, women with GDM compared with those without had a significantly increased risk of developing PPD symptoms:
- Pooled relative risk (RR), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.08-1.39).
- Heterogeneity was high across studies (I2=69.1%; Pheterogeneity=.001).
- The association was highly modified by study design:
- Pooled RR for prospective studies: 1.95 (1.48-2.57) vs
- Pooled RR for retrospective cohort studies: 1.16 (1.12-1.21; Pinteraction=.003).
- When analyzed separately, no evidence of heterogeneity seen in either retrospective (I2=0%; Pheterogeneity=.55) or prospective cohort studies (I2=22.1%; Pheterogeneity=.27).
- Assessment tools of PPD and GDM varied across studies, as did PPD scale cutoffs.
- Some studies are based on self-reported data.
- Several studies did not adjust for prenatal depression.