Vaccine: Monthly Essentials January 2017

  • Global Monthly Essentials
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The 3 essential studies on Vaccine this month, selected from 439 peer-reviewed studies

1.Only 41.0%-45.2% of US children aged 6 mo to 8 y are fully vaccinated.Clinicians should aggressively increase influenza vaccination rates See our essential synopsis of the article from Am J Prev Med below.

2. An experimental Ebola vaccine, tested on 5,800 people, proved to be 100% effective. See our essential synopsis of the article from Lancet below.

3. No new or unexpected maternal or fetal safety outcomes were observed after administration of inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccine. See our essential synopsis of the article from Drug Saf  below.


See November's Monthly Essentials on Vaccine»
See yesterday's Monthly Essentials on Diabetes»


Influenza vaccine: most US children not fully vaccinated

Source: Am J Prev Med


  • Only 41.0%-45.2% of US children aged 6 mo to 8 y are fully vaccinated. 
  • Being fully vaccinated is defined as "either (1) receipt of two doses of influenza vaccine for children who were previously unvaccinated or did not receive a total of two or more doses of influenza vaccine from July 1, 2010, to the end of June 2012 for the 2012–2013 influenza seasons or to the end of June 2013 for the 2013–2014 influenza season, or (2) receipt of one dose of influenza vaccine otherwise".

Key results

  • Only 41.0% of children were fully vaccinated during the 2012-2013 flu season and 45.2% during the 2013-2014 flu season.
  • The sociodemographic characteristics of being fully vaccinated were being older children, non-black, having a mother with an education >12 y, or living in a high-income household.

Study design

  • 51,620 parents of children aged 6 mo to 8 y participated in the 2012-2013 telephone-based National Immunization Survey-Flu and 65,848 participated in the 2013-2014 survey.
  • Demographic characteristics that were independently associated with child being fully vaccinated was examined by Cox proportional hazards models.

Why this matters

  • Clinicians should aggressively increase influenza vaccination rates.

View Abstract


Ebola: rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine proven safe, effective

Source: Lancet


  • When added to established control methods, recombinant, replication-competent, vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a Zaire Ebolavirus (rVSV-ZEBOV) is safe and effective for preventing Ebola virus disease (EVD).

Key results

  • Overall, 5837 individuals received rVSV-ZEBOV (5643 adults, 194 children).
  • 51 clusters, 2119/3232 contacts/contacts of contacts (C/COC) comprised the immediate vaccination group; 47 clusters, 2041/3096 C/COC comprised delayed vaccination group.
  • Vaccine efficacy was 100% (P=.0033).
  • 53.9% (n=3149) reported ≥1 adverse event, of which 87.5% (6311/7211) were mild; mostly headache (25.4%; n=1832), fatigue (18.9%; n=1361), muscle pain (13.1%; n=942)
Study design
  • Cluster, randomized controlled study evaluating ability of single intramuscular dose rVSV-ZEBOV (2×107 plaque-forming units) to confer protection against laboratory-confirmed EVD.
  • Clusters: epidemiologically linked people (C/COC) associated with confirmed EBV cases randomized 1:1 to immediate or delayed (21 d) vaccination.
  • Safety: vaccine recipients observed for 30 min postvaccination, home visits on days 3, 14, 21, 42, 63, 84.
  • Outcome: laboratory-confirmed EVD ≥10 d randomization, vaccine effect on deaths caused by EVD; secondary: overall ring vaccination effectiveness for protecting randomized C/COC clusters.
  • Funding: World Health Organization.

Why this matters

  • Data suggest that rVSV-ZEBOV may help avert EVD-related mortality during outbreaks.

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Influenza vaccines in pregnancy: no new or unexpected outcomes during 2010-2016

SourceDrug Saf

  • No new or unexpected maternal or fetal safety outcomes were observed from 2010 through May, 2016 after administration of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).

Key results

  • Serious events, but no deaths, were reported among 11.2% of 671 reports.
  • For IIV recipients, the most frequent pregnancy-specific AE was spontaneous abortion in 11.4% of reports, stillbirth in 1.8%, and pre-term delivery in 1.1%.
  • The most frequent nonpregnancy-specific AEs were injection site reactions (10.1%).
  • Neonatal or infant outcomes were reported in 4.0% of VAERS reports, of which 7 had major birth defects of different types, but no neonatal deaths.

Study design

  • This study examined 671 reports of adverse events (AEs) from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) after administration of IIV or LAIV from July 2010 to May 2016.
  • Funding: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and US Food and Drug Administration.
Why this matters
  • Pregnant women have higher risk for morbidity and mortality from influenza than nonpregnant women, but influenza vaccine uptake is only 41%.

View Abstract